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The UK government's latest review of cyber security trends and risks - "Cyber Security Longitudinal Study Wave Two Results" report - provides valuable insights into the state of cyber security in the country.

The report is based on a survey of individuals and organisations, and provides a comprehensive overview of their attitudes, behaviours, and experiences related to cyber security. There are a number of key takeaways from the report that those in the public sector should carefully consider and implement.

Report Findings

The findings of the report highlight the ongoing significance of cyber security in the face of increasing online threats. Despite increasing awareness of cyber security risks, individuals and organisations continue to face significant challenges in effectively protecting themselves online, in particular in the public sector. These challenges include a lack of understanding of effective security practices, the difficulty of staying up to date with constantly evolving threats, and the difficulties in balancing security and convenience in the use of technology.

One of the key findings of the report is the need for greater engagement and awareness at the board level. Around one in six businesses (15%) and charities (18%) report that their board has not discussed or received updates on cyber security over the last twelve months. This is concerning, as the board is responsible for setting the overall strategy and direction for an organisation and it is imperative that cyber security forms an integral part of that. It continues to be the case that board members have received cyber security training in fewer than half of organisations (45% of businesses and 34% of charities), indicating a need for greater education and awareness at the board level.

Another key finding of the report is the need for organisations to take proactive steps to protect themselves against cyber threats. Over the last twelve months, 74% of businesses and 81% of charities have experienced some form of cyber security incident, including phishing. Despite this, 85% of businesses and 86% of charities have taken some action to expand or improve their cyber security, indicating a growing recognition of the need to take proactive steps to protect against cyber threats.

A clear outcome of this is a continued need for more education and support on cyber security, both for individuals and for organisations. This is particularly important for the public sector, where sensitive information and critical infrastructure is often at risk: the implications of failing to invest in their protection can be significant and far wider-reaching than in other sectors.

Report Recommendations

In order to better protect against cyber threats, public sector organisations need to take a proactive and comprehensive approach to cyber security. This includes implementing strong security measures, such as encryption, firewalls, and intrusion detection systems, as well as providing regular training and education on cyber security to employees.

In addition, public sector organisations should regularly assess and update their cyber security strategies to ensure that they remain effective in the face of changing threats. This includes habitually reviewing and updating their policies and procedures, as well as staying informed about new and emerging cyber security threats and technologies. Ensuring that there is an up-to-date and effective cyber-response plan in place, and that the appropriate people understand how and when it should be used, will help public sector organisations to react swiftly to any cyber threats that arise and mitigate those risks.

Another key area of concern for public sector organisations is the protection of sensitive data. This includes both personal information, ranging from personal identification numbers, financial and health related information, to confidential information such as classified government documents. To ensure that sensitive data is protected, public sector organisations need to implement strong access controls, such as multi-factor authentication and data encryption, as well as regularly monitoring and auditing their systems to detect and prevent unauthorised access.

The Role of the Public Sector

The public sector also has a role to play in promoting good cyber security practices among the general population. This can include providing information and resources to help individuals better protect themselves online, as well as working with private sector organisations and civil society groups to raise awareness about the importance of cyber security.

One way that public sector organisations can help raise awareness about cyber security is by collaborating with private sector organisations to promote cyber security awareness and education. This can include working together to develop public information campaigns, as well as organising training and educational events for both individuals and organisations.

Another important step that public sector organisations can take to promote good cyber security practices is to work with other government agencies to develop and implement a comprehensive national cyber security strategy. This can include the development of policies and procedures to help organisations better protect themselves online, as well as the development of public-private partnerships to promote the sharing of information and best practices.

Consequences of cyber-attacks on public sector organisations

The repercussions of a cyber-attack in the public sector can be severe and far-reaching, beyond the perhaps obvious damage to finances and reputation. Some of the other potential impacts include:

  1. Disruption of essential services: The public sector provides critical services, such as healthcare, emergency response, and social services. A cyber-attack on any public sector organisation could disrupt these services and have serious consequences for the community; and
  2. Economic disruption: A significant cyber-attack on the public sector could disrupt financial markets, cause economic losses, and have a negative impact on the broader economy.

These reasons, in addition to the erosion of public trust and the fact that public sector spending is already under threat, place the public sector in a unique position, requiring a robust approach to its security practices, with perhaps very little money to implement the same. That said, there is much that can be done on a reduced budget, and any initial outlay, would be vastly outweighed by the financial losses should a cyber-attack be successful. Local authorities and other public sector organisations should take a longer view approach and consider the broader consequences of being underprepared.


In conclusion, the findings of the UK government's "Cyber Security Longitudinal Study Wave Two Results" report highlight the ongoing challenges facing individuals and organisations in protecting themselves online. For public sector organisations, this means taking a proactive and comprehensive approach to cyber security, including implementing strong security measures, regularly assessing and updating their strategies, protecting sensitive data, and working to promote good cyber security practices among the general population. By taking these steps, public sector organisations can help ensure that the UK remains secure and protected against cyber threats in the years to come.